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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 205-212

Nutritional assessment of birth outcomes of gestational diabetic mothers in Gaza Strip, Palestine: A retrospective case-control study

1 Department of Clinical Nutrition, Al Azhar University-Gaza, Gaza, Palestine
2 Department of Pharmacology and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al Azhar University-Gaza, Palestine
3 Nursing Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Al Azhar University-Gaza, Gaza, Palestine

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ihab A Naser
Department of Clinical Nutrition, Al Azhar University-Gaza, Gaza
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijam.ijam_153_21

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Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most prevalent metabolic disorder during pregnancy. Numerous studies have dealt with risk factors of GDM, while others studied the health complications associated with GDM. This study aimed to investigate the association between GDM and nutritional birth outcomes in Gaza Strip, Palestine. Materials and Methods: The study utilized the case−control design where 44 GDM mothers and 44 non-GDM mothers were recruited. The study was conducted at the obstetric departments at Al-Shifa Maternity Hospital in Gaza and Mubarak Maternity Hospital in Khan Yunis. Data collection included anthropometric measurement and hematological indicators and other pertinent information through a structured questionnaire. Results: The result reported that the mean age of GDM pregnant women and non-GDM was 31 ± 11.5 and 23 ± 6.75 years, respectively. 13.6% had anemia, 20.5% had previous delivery of macrosomic baby, 15.9% had hypertension, and 11.4% were obese. In addition, 63.6% of GDM mothers had a family history of diabetes and 18.2% had a family history of GDM. 43.2% of GDM mothers delivered by cesarean section (CS) and 13.6% of GDM mothers had a premature delivery. Assessment of dietary intake indicated that 40.9% of GDM mothers have breakfast regularly. The neonatal median birth weight was 3.22 kg for babies of GDM mothers and 3.30 kg for babies of non-GDM mothers, and the median length was 52 cm versus 50 cm; 6.8% of neonates of GDM mothers had low Apgar score. Neonates of GDM mothers expressed significantly lower blood sugar (P = 0.039), lower albumin (P = 0.037), and higher soluble surface receptors – surface transferrin receptor (P = 0.017), but there were no statistically significant differences in the other hematological parameters. Conclusion: The study reflected a significant association between GDM and lower blood glucose, serum albumin, and iron status. Furthermore, the study reflected a significant association between GDM and CS delivery and neonatal hypoglycemia. The study emphasized the need to integrate clinical nutrition services in maternity departments and antenatal clinics and encourage physical activities during pregnancy. The following core competencies are addressed in this article: Patient care and procedural skills, Medical knowledge.

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