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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 120-122

Flipped journal club: A way forward in postgraduate medical education

1 Department of Community Medicine and Family Medicine, AIIMS, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
2 Independent Researcher, Ex-Project Coordinator, Department of Community Medicine and Family Medicine, AIIMS, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
3 Department of Pharmacology, AIIMS, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

Date of Submission31-Mar-2022
Date of Acceptance16-Aug-2022
Date of Web Publication28-Sep-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Debkumar Pal
Department of Community Medicine and Family Medicine, AIIMS, Bhubaneswar, Odisha
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijam.ijam_33_22

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After its origin during the 18th century, the journal club has come a long way as an effective method of pedagogy in postgraduate medical education. As the traditional format of the journal club is becoming less attractive for residents, the newer concept of blended learning and flipped classrooms is now being incorporated slowly into the traditional format of the journal club. This newer format of journal club is called flipped journal club, where all materials regarding the article are shared among residents and faculty well before the day of presentation. On the presentation day, there is a small group discussion regarding the summary, critical appraisal, and its implication on the concerned subject.
The following core competencies are addressed in this article: Practice-based learning and improvement, Systems-based practice, Medical knowledge, Professionalism.

Keywords: Academic resident, flipped journal club, journal club, medical education

How to cite this article:
Taywade M, Pal D, Kalra R, Gopi K, Maji S. Flipped journal club: A way forward in postgraduate medical education. Int J Acad Med 2022;8:120-2

How to cite this URL:
Taywade M, Pal D, Kalra R, Gopi K, Maji S. Flipped journal club: A way forward in postgraduate medical education. Int J Acad Med [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Feb 7];8:120-2. Available from: https://www.ijam-web.org/text.asp?2022/8/3/120/357233

  Introduction Top

In most medical schools, the journal club is now an integral part of the curriculum for postgraduate students.[1] It is compulsory for medical postgraduates to participate in the journal clubs regularly for the improvement of their skills in evidence-based medicine (EBM). Currently, EBM, which evolved in the 1990s, is the foundation of clinical practice and a journal club is a primary method of teaching students about EBM.[2],[3]

The journal club has the following benefits:

  1. Instruction in critical thinking about research articles regarding research design, biostatistics, and quality of evidence
  2. Instruction in EBM
  3. Encourages lifelong learning
  4. Development of leadership, presentation, and mentorship skills
  5. Discussion of new pieces of evidence
  6. Provokes original research.

  Traditional Journal Club Top

In the traditional journal club, one person will present the findings and critical appraisal of a recently published journal article in the presence of other professionals. The article is usually selected based on the impact factor of the journal, the possibility of impact on the attendee's practice, and the affiliation of the author.[4] The article should be recent preferably published within 6 months and up to within the last year.[5] The presenter (usually a postgraduate student) would ideally make the presentation in three parts: a brief summary of the article, a critical appraisal, and its implication in EBM. There would be one leader or moderator who would facilitate the discussion. [Figure 1] depicts how a traditional journal club works.
Figure 1: Traditional journal club presentation

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  Flipped Classroom Top

With the increasing trend of the blended classroom in the western world, flipped classrooms are now becoming popular.[6] In a flipped classroom, the instructional approach is to deliver the contents of the lecture beforehand in an online mode, textbook chapter, or handout, followed by a discussion regarding only the salient, challenging, and relevant points in the class.[7],[8],[9] In a traditional classroom, after listening to the class, students complete the homework; in flipped classrooms, students participate in active learning activities such as exercises, projects problem-based learning, and conversations after reading assigned work or watching prerecorded lectures before the class (i.e., the homework is done before the class).[10],[11],[12]

Formally originated in 1998, the “flipped” approach was found to increase understanding among students, improve attendance in class, create effective time management of the class, and focus on clinical-oriented integrated teaching and overall improvement in scoring in examinations.[7],[13] Simultaneously, there will be a practical application of the topic during the class, so there will be more time for the clinical implication of the topics.[14] The new curriculum prescribed by the Indian National Medical Commission is also based on this integrated approach.[15]

  Flipped Journal Club Top

The interest in traditional journal clubs is waning in many places.[12] Flipped journal club may provide an alternative. In flipped journal club, the article and the PowerPoint or handout prepared by the presenter and the presenter's faculty mentor are shared with the group at least 1 week before the discussion.[16] During the journal club itself, only points of confusion are addressed, followed by discussion in small groups of 7–8 participants. This new concept of pedagogy was found to effectively increase not only the interest among residents but also their interaction in journal clubs.[16] This is a framework for organizing an effective flipped journal club [Figure 2].[17]
Figure 2: Framework of flipped journal club

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  Flipped Journal Club Versus Traditional Journal Club Top

The traditional journal club has an advantage over flipped journal club regarding adequate time for preparation. However, the traditional journal club has a disadvantage of an ill-prepared and disengaged audience. Although flipped journal club helps in more interactive learning, the preparation for it takes more time in comparison with traditional journal club.[18]

  Conclusion Top

With a history of more than 150 years, the journal club is now a common method of pedagogy in medical education at the postgraduate level. Reformatting journal clubs to a flipped model may lead to increasing the education, interest, and impact of journal clubs in postgraduate learning.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

Research quality and ethics statement

The authors declare that this manuscript does not require institutional review board/ethics review or approval.

  References Top

Berman D, Braig Z, Simms B, Anderson T, Dougherty K, Marcinkowski K, et al. Efficacy of medical student surgery journal club. J Surg Educ 2019;76:83-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
Djulbegovic B, Guyatt GH. Progress in evidence-based medicine: A quarter century on. Lancet 2017;390:415-23.  Back to cited text no. 2
Murad MH, Asi N, Alsawas M, Alahdab F. New evidence pyramid. BMJ Evid Based Med 2016;21:125-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
Sawhney R. How to prepare an outstanding journal club presentation. Hematologist 2006;3(1):1–3.  Back to cited text no. 4
Hallas P. Choosing an interesting paper for a journal club. Br Med J 2005;331:s252.  Back to cited text no. 5
Horn MB. Blended learning what is blended learning? Perform Improv 2011;44:5-64.  Back to cited text no. 6
Hew KF, Lo CK. Flipped classroom improves student learning in health professions education: A meta-analysis. BMC Med Educ 2018;18:38.  Back to cited text no. 7
Mehta NB, Hull AL, Young JB, Stoller JK. Just imagine: New paradigms for medical education. Acad Med 2013;88:1418-23.  Back to cited text no. 8
Harrison L, Wong D, Traeger A, Harmer A, Jennings M, Moseley AM. Knowledge, skills and barriers to evidence-based practice and the impact of a flipped classroom training program for physical therapists: An observational study. Physiother Theory Pract 2021;37(10):1–121-12.  Back to cited text no. 9
EDUCASE Learning Initiative. 7 Things You Should Know About Flipped Classrooms [Internet] 2012. Available from: https://library.educause.edu/resources/2012/2/7-things-you-should-know-about-flipped-classrooms [Last accessed on 2022 Feb 02].  Back to cited text no. 10
Chae SJ. Medical students' satisfaction on online flipped learning by learning styles. Korean J Med Educ 2021;33:405-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
Taylor P, Warner J. National survey of training needs for evidence-based practices. Psychiatric Bull 2000;24:272-3.  Back to cited text no. 12
Herrero JI, Quiroga J. Flipped classroom improves results in pathophysiology learning: Results of a nonrandomized controlled study. Adv Physiol Educ 2020;44:370-5.  Back to cited text no. 13
Chan E, Botelho MG, Wong GT. A flipped classroom, same-level peer-assisted learning approach to clinical skill teaching for medical students. PLoS One 2021;16:e0258926.  Back to cited text no. 14
UG Curriculum | NMC. National Medical Commission; 2018. Available from: https://www.nmc.org.in/information-desk/for-colleges/ug-curriculum/. [Last accessed on 2021 Nov 04].  Back to cited text no. 15
Bounds R, Boone S. The flipped journal club. West J Emerg Med 2018;19:23-7.  Back to cited text no. 16
McGlacken-Byrne SM, O'Rahelly M, Cantillon P, Allen NM. Journal club: Old tricks and fresh approaches. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 2020;105:236-41.  Back to cited text no. 17
Xiong L, Giese AK, Pasi M, Charidimou A, van Veluw S, Viswanathan A. How to organize a journal club for fellows and residents. Stroke 2018;49:e283-5.  Back to cited text no. 18


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]


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